U.S. Air War All-But-Over in Iraq
美军在空中作战已近尾声

This is how far the U.S. war effort in Iraq has wound down: There wasn’t a single American airstrike in Iraq last month, according statistics from the U.S. Air Force. And insurgent improvised bombs, the country’s deadliest threat, are down 90 percent.
在伊拉克运行的美国战争机器慢慢逐步停转的程度:据美国空军的统计数据,上个月美军对伊拉克一次空袭也没有。而且伊拉克最致命的威胁——自制炸弹爆炸也下降了90%。

Iraq is still a dangerous place; five Christian churches were attacked on Sunday, for example. But the newly quiet sky shows just how far American military involvement in Iraq’s affairs has shrunk. In June of 2007, there were 207 airstrikes. In June 2008, there were 25. Now, none.
伊拉克依旧是个是非之地;比如在周日,五个基督教堂遭到袭击。不过刚刚平静的天空只是说明了美军大大减少了对伊拉克事务的插手。2007年6月时还有207次空袭。到了2008年6月曾有25次。现在已经没有了空袭。

No more bombs over Baghdad doesn’t mean peaceful skies across the Middle East and Central Asia, however. American aircraft bombed Afghanistan 437 times this past month, and over 2000 times in 2009. That’s about 20 times the amount of bombs dropped on Iraq this year.
然而,巴格达上空不再有炸弹落下并不意味着中东和中亚地区的宁静天空。美军飞机上个月空袭阿富汗437次,2009年已逾2000次。实际投弹将近是今年在伊拉克投下炸弹量的20倍。

The changing tempos of the two wars can be seen in other statistics, as well. There were 260 Improvised Explosive Device (IED) attacks in Iraq last month, according to statistics from the military’s Joint IED Defeat Organization. That’s down from 602 attacks in June 2008 and 2588 in June 2007. The trends in Afghanistan are going in the other direction. The jury-rigged explosives hit a new high there last month: 736 in June, compared to 308 in June 2008, and 234 in June 2007.
在其他的统计数据上也能看出这两场战争中的节奏变化。据军方自制炸弹袭击联合防御组织的统计数据,上个月在伊拉克的自制炸弹袭击有260次。与2008年6月的602次和2007年6月的2588次都有所下降。阿富汗的变化趋势则相反。在阿富汗,这种“土炸弹”爆炸次数再创新高:6月736次,去年6月为308次,2007年同期为234次。

Numbers from the military’s Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Germany tell a similar story. Since January, 2004, there have been over 43,000 troops sent there from Iraq. That’s more than triple the 12,000 patients sent from Afghanistan. But in recent months, cases from the conflict zones have begun to run even — despite the fact there are twice as many U.S. troops in Iraq.
军方在德国兰兹图地区医疗中心的数据表明的情况也类似。自从2004年1月起,从伊拉克送往那里的有43000多人。与从阿富汗送来的12000人相比,是三倍还多。

Afghanistan is receiving a record amount of supplies as well, according to the Air Force.  U.S. planes dropped 3.25 million pounds of it this past June, the most ever.
据空军说,阿富汗的补给量也刷新了记录。美军飞机在刚刚过去的6月扔下了325万磅炸弹,是开战以来最多的一个月。

Noah Shachtman and Shelley DuBois
——诺亚·沙其曼,希拉·杜柏

[Photo: USAF; spotter: MG]
[照片来源:美国空军;记录:MG]

 

Air Force Eyes Purple Bacteria to Power Drones
美空军着眼于紫细菌为无人机提供能源

by Katie Drummond
凯蒂·德拉蒙德

72999main_pathfind

The Air Force doesn’t exactly want its drones powered by purple bacteria. Instead, the air service would like to use a synthetic dye, based one the microorganisms, to juice up its robotic planes.
空军不是真的想用紫细菌来驱动无人机。而是空军希望使用一种基于微生物的合成涂料,来使他的机器人飞机翱翔于空中。

Let me explain: The U.S. armed services are on a slow crawl towards environmental friendliness, investing in everything from massive solar arrays to algae-based jet fuels to trash-powered generators. Military-funded researchers are also experimenting with downright novel methods to come up with green fuel and power. Like this bacteria-and-drones project.
让我来解释一下:美军正在慢慢地爬着走向环境友好型,同时给巨型太阳能电池阵列场、基于藻类的喷气式飞机燃料到垃圾发电机等等项目投资。军方资助的研究人员也直接使用新方法来实验制作绿色燃料以及能源。比如这个“细菌”无人机计划。

The Air Force is sponsoring a University of Washington research effort to generate power using a bacterial pigment that can convert solar energy to electricity, Defense News reports. The pigment, found in purple microorganisms that thrive in shallow water, harnesses sunlight to convert carbon dioxide to carbohydrates, which the bacteria then uses for energy.
据防务新闻报道,空军正在资助一个华盛顿大学的研究小组以使用细菌涂料通过将光能转化为电能,以此来发电。这种在潜水大量繁殖的紫微生物中发现的涂料可以利用太阳光将二氧化碳转化为碳水化合物,然后细菌就使用这些碳水化合物作为能量。

Dr. Minoru Taya’s University of Washington lab has created a synthetic version of the pigment and embedded it into solar energy cells (the components of solar panels). When the dye-sensitized cells are hit by sunlight, the pigment launches an electron circuit, yielding electricity. That process can repeat over and over, so the cells rarely need replacing.
华盛顿大学某实验室的稔·塔亚博士合成了这种涂料,并且将其降入到太阳能电池中(太阳能电池板的组件)。当这种使用涂料搜集能源的电池被太阳光照射后,涂料形成一个电子轨道,产生电能。这个过程可以不断的重复,所以电池几乎不需要更换。

Right now, the cells are used commercially to recharge cell phones. It would take a lot more of them to charge an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), but the military thinks the project is feasible. Mostly because dye-sensitized cells are cheap and small compared to the silicon alternative. They’re a little less efficient, but cost a quarter as much to produce. And the cells are lightweight and thin, so they could spread across the wings of an UAV without taking up extra space.
现在,电池已经已经商用化用于手机电池充电。但是给一架无人机(UAV)供电则需要相当多的这种电池,不过军方认为这个项目是可行的。很可能是因为这种使用涂料收集能源的电池成本低,且与硅材料制成的替代品相比更小。这种电池效率不是太高,但是制造成本仅为后者的四分之一。电池轻盈且很薄,因而可以铺满整个无人机的机翼而不需要占用额外的空间。

And that’s exactly what the Air Force wants: panels of dye-sensitized cells that run along the wingspan of UAV’s, charging a battery that could power the plane’s propeller, surveillance systems, onboard computers and flight controls.
而且这正是空军所需要的:铺满整个无人机机翼的涂料电池板,并且它可以给飞机的螺旋桨、监控系统、机载计算机一级飞行控制系统供电。

So far, the Air Force has spent $450,000 on the project, and expect to power an UAV with the mock bacterial dye within three to five years. But the cells could be used in other projects before that. The military is considering a bacteria-inspired solar “power shade” that would fit over Army tents to keep the electricity flowing inside.
至今,空军已经在这个项目上投资45万美元,希望能够在3到5年内使用仿生细菌涂料来给无人机供电。不过电池将会在其他项目中提前应用。军方正在研究一种吸入太阳能的细菌“能量伞”,那将适合陆军能使得电力不流入帐篷内部。

[Photo: NASA]
[照片供稿:美国国家航空航天局]

 

告密者断言猛禽隐形战斗机的“严重缺陷”

by David Axe

070401-F-6701P-005

medicaid fraud attorney The fight over the future of Lockheed Martin’s F-22 Raptor just got a lot nastier. While Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and Congress fuss over whether to buy more of the $150 million-a-copy jets (not counting development costs), allegations have surfaced of serious and surprising problems with what is widely considered the world’s most capable fighter. One former Lockheed Martin engineer has sued the company in federal court, alleging that the company knowingly applied faulty stealth coatings to the Raptor’s skin. And today, The Washington Post connected the stealth-coating allegation to a series of Pentagon tests between 2004 and 2008 that revealed problems with the jet’s skin, requiring “frequent and time-consuming repairs.”
关于洛克希德·马汀公司的F-22“猛禽”战斗机的争论现在日益白热化。国防部长罗伯特·盖茨和国会为是否要购买更多的单价为1亿5000万美元的“猛禽”(还不包括研发费用)而殚精竭虑,关于这种普遍被认识是世界上能力最强的战斗机的严重、惊人问题的断言日渐浮出水面。一位前洛克希德·马汀公司的工程师在联邦法庭起诉他的公司,声称公司有意地在“猛禽”的表面应用了有缺陷的伪装涂料。而且今日《华盛顿邮报》将这则关于伪装涂料的断言与2004年到2008年间五角大楼的一系列测试联系起来,这些揭示“猛禽”涂料的问题需要“频繁且费时的修理”。

The lawsuit filed by engineer Darrol Olsen, who was fired in 1999 for unrelated reasons, claims he “witnessed Lockheed commit fraud regarding the F-22’s stealth coatings. Specifically, from September 1995 until June 1999 when he left Lockheed, Olsen “witnessed Lockheed order and use coatings that Lockheed knew were defective.” Olsen — described as “one of the top materials and process, composites and low observables engineers in the stealth technology industry” — first took his findings to Lockheed officials, but was told to “stay out of it,” according to the lawsuit. He turned to noted Lockheed whistleblower Mike DeKort, for help filing suit.
由于不相干的原因而在1999年被解雇的工程师达罗尔·奥尔森,提请的这则诉讼声称他“能证明洛克希德公司在F-22的伪装涂料上有诈骗行为”。具体地说,在1995年9月到他离开洛克希德的1999年6月,奥尔森“证实洛克希德订购且使用了其明知为有缺陷的涂料。”在提请的诉讼中,奥尔森——被描述为“隐形科技业界的一名顶级材料加工、复合和隐形工程师”——说他第一次将其发现提交给洛克希德官方时,被要求“不要插手这件事情”。他转而求助于著名的洛克希德告密者麦克·迪克特来帮助他提出诉讼。

The end result of the alleged fraud, is an F-22 fleet that can only fly 60 percent of the time, according to WaPo. “The trends are not good,” Thomas Christie, former Pentagon top weapons tester, told the paper. It was apparently these problems, and others, that former Defense Department chief weapons buyer John Young was referring to, when he recommended, in November, that the Pentagon focus on fixing the Raptors it has, rather than buying more.
据《华盛顿邮报》说,这则诈骗案的最后结果是一架F-22机群实际飞行时间只有设计标准的60%。“这个势头可不怎么好,”前五角大楼高级武器测试专家汤马斯·克里斯蒂告诉记者。明显地,前国防部武器装备采购主管约翰·杨在11月提及、关于这样那样的问题之建议是五角大楼关注的是解决“猛禽”现有的问题,而不是购买更多的“猛禽”。

A Lockheed spokesperson told The Post that “the issues raised in the complaint are at least 10 years old.” “We deny Mr. Olsen’s allegations and will vigorously defend this matter.” They’ll surely have to, as criticism of the pricey F-22 mounts, in what could be the program’s 11th hour.
一位洛克希德公司的发言人告知《华盛顿邮报》记者“这些问题至少已经有10年了。”“我们否认了奥尔森先生的指控并且将坚定地为自己辩护。”当对于昂贵的F-22的批评排正在发难之时——这个项目的关键时刻,他们也只有这个法子。

[PHOTO: Air Force]
[照片来源:美国空军]

 

五角大楼:隐形战机是个缺胳膊少腿的干扰发射台,生产已经终止了。

By David Axe

Congress and the Pentagon are locked in a battle royale over the future of the Air Force’s $150 million-per-copy F-22 Raptor stealth fighter. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates thinks 187 of the jets is just plenty. House and Senate panels have moved to buy at least another seven this year — and potentially dozens more, later.
国会和五角大楼在一场关于空军1亿5000万美元一架的F-22猛禽隐形战斗机的未来的利益争斗中吵得不可开交。国防部长罗伯特·盖茨认为187架已经足够了。参众两院的专门小组促使今年至少购买7架——之后可能更多。

In a Senate confirmation hearing Thursday, Marine Gen. James Cartwright, the vice chairman of Joints Chief of Staff, defended Gates’ position — and whipped out a new argument for why Raptor-making should end. Faced with shutting down either Lockheed Martin’s F-22 production line, or Boeing’s competing F/A-18E/F  fighter, for cost reasons, Cartwright said he asked the military’s regional commanders what air capabilities they needed most. They chose “electronic warfare,” a.k.a. “radar jamming,” Cartwright said. That meant keeping the Boeing jet, for only it has a dedicated jammer version, the EA-18G Growler.
参院周四举行的参议院听证会上,参谋长联席会议副主席海军陆战队詹姆斯·卡特怀特上将为盖茨的观点做了辩护——迅速给出了为何猛禽的生产应该停止的论证。面临着洛克希德·马汀的F-22生产线或者波音的竞争产品F/A-18E/F战斗机其中之一会因成本原因被关闭的现状,卡特怀特说他问了战区军事指挥官他们最需要战机的什么能力。他们选择了“电子战”又名“雷达干扰,”卡特怀特说。那将意味着保留波音的战机,因为只有波音拥有专用电子战战机EA-18G“咆哮者”。

Cartwright’s testimony might come as a surprise to some Raptor boosters, who for years have touted the stealthy jet’s ability to perform “electronic-attack” missions, including jamming, using its sophisticated, electronically scanned radar. It’s for this reason that a top Air Force official, in 2007, said the Raptor’s “F-22″ designation simply wasn’t comprehensive enough. “It’s not an F-22, it’s an F-, A-, B-, E-, EA-, RC-, AWACS … 22,” then-Deputy Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. David Deptula said, adding the letter prefixes for bombers, spy and radar planes and jammers.
卡特怀特的声明可能让“猛禽”的鼓吹者他们吃了一惊,那些鼓吹者们数年来都以隐形战机实施“电子打击”任务——包括使用那复杂、电子扫描雷达进行干扰——的能力来吹嘘、兜售战机。正是因为这个原因,一名空军的最高官员在2007年这样评说猛禽,简单地说,F-22的设计不够全面。随后参谋长联席会议副主席大卫·戴普特拉中将说,“他本质上不是一架F-22战斗机,是一架战斗、攻击、轰炸、电子侦查、电子攻击、侦查、预警机的22型飞机,”为战机缀上了一堆给轰炸机、侦察机、雷达预警机和干扰机的命名前缀。

But the F-22’s electronic-attack skills have remained dormant, while the Air Force focuses on honing the jet’s air-to-air prowess, and improving vexing maintenance problems. The Raptor won’t be able to jam enemy radars, until 2011 — and then, only half the fleet will have that capability. The Raptor suffers other, serious limitations, that haven’t been widely reported. As many as half of the jets already paid for, lack modern dogfighting systems, such as helmet-mounted sights.
但当空军正关注于增强战机的空中格斗能力、改进烦人的维护问题时,F-22的电子战技能还只是潜在的。直到2011年前,猛禽战机不能干扰任何敌军雷达——并且,到那时也只有一半的F-22有那样的能力。猛禽还在其他方面严重受限,但是没有大范围的报告。在缺乏例如头盔式仪表盘等现代格斗系统的情况下,多达一半的战机都已经付款了。

Still, the F-22 is the only jet that can routinely “supercruise” — flying faster than sound, without afterburner — and there are hints it can use this ability to loft AMRAAM air-to-air missiles, high enough to kill enemy satellites. But that wasn’t enough to sway top generals, when asked to choose between the Raptor and the much cheaper F-18. In a recent mock dogfight, an EA-18G “killed” an F-22 — one of only a handful of times any other fighter has managed such a feat, in the air. Now the electronic F-18 has also beaten the Raptor in the hallways of the Pentagon.
然而,F-22战机仍然是能够例行地进行“超级巡航”的唯一喷气式飞机——不需加力燃烧室就能超音速飞行——这暗示着它有能力发射高级中程空对空导弹,高的足以打击任何敌方卫星。不过那不足以改变将军们当被问及在“猛禽”以及更便宜的F-18中间做选择时的想法。在最近的一次模拟格斗中,一架EA-18G击落了一架F-22——在空中成功打败F-22的屈指可数的几个战例之一。如今在五角大楼的走廊里,F-18的电子战型号也击败了猛禽。

[PHOTO: Steve Trimble]
[照片提供:史蒂夫·天宝]

 

Carrier Air Wing 9 Completes 2009 Deployment
第9舰载机联队完成2009年度部署任务

原文地址:http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=46760

By Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class (SW) Steve Owsley, USS John C. Stennis Public Affairs
约翰·C·斯坦尼斯号航空母舰公共事务办公室 大型通讯专家 史蒂夫·奥斯里上士

SAN DIEGO (NNS) — The squadrons of Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 9 completed their 2009 deployment when the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74) pulled into Naval Air Station North Island, Calif., July 6.
圣地亚哥(海军新闻)——7月6日,随着尼米兹级航空母舰约翰·C·斯坦尼斯号(编号:CVN-74)航空母舰被拖入加利福尼亚州北岛海军航空兵基地,第9舰载机联队(CVW)各中队完成了他们2009年度部署。

CVW 9 began its deployment Jan. 17, when it embarked Stennis for a scheduled deployment to the Western Pacific Ocean as the air assets of the John C. Stennis Carrier Strike Group.
搭载于斯坦尼斯号航空母舰的第9舰载机联队从1月17日开始了任务,此次任务是联队作为约翰·C·斯坦尼斯号战斗群的航空兵部队前往西太平洋执行的例行部署

According to CVW 9 Deputy Commander Capt. Paul Haas, the deployment was more like the traditional Western Pacific Ocean deployments from his days as a junior officer.
据第9舰载机联队副联队长保罗·哈斯上校说,此次部署与当年他作为一名基层军官去西太平洋执行任务时大同小异。

"We’ve spent a lot of generations in the Arabian Gulf doing Fifth Fleet operations," said Haas. "This is a vital and very important thing that we do in the Western Pacific."
我们几代人都在阿拉伯湾执行第五舰队的行动,”哈斯说。“这是我们在西太平洋做的必不可少、极其重要的事情。”

During the deployment, CVW 9 participated in an undersea warfare exercise with the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force, annual exercise Foal Eagle with the Republic of Korea and joint exercise Northern Edge 2009.
此次部署中,第9舰载机联队与日本海上自卫队参与了水下武器测试,与韩国进行了年度“驹·鹰”演习以及2009年北界联合演习。

CVW 9 Sailors also participated in 38 community service projects during seven port visits.
第9舰载机联队的士兵在7次停靠期间还参加了38次社区服务项目。

The deployment marked several milestones within the air wing. The Raptors of Helicopter Maritime Strike Squadron (HSM) 71 completed their maiden deployment, while the "Yellow Jackets" of Electronic Attack Squadron (VAQ) 138 made their last scheduled deployment with the EA-6B Prowler. The "Argonauts" of Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 147 completed their first deployment with the F/A-18E Super Hornet after transitioning from F/A-18C Hornet.
对于舰载机联队来说,这次部署有着几个里程碑式事情。第71直升机海上突击中队(HSM-71)的猛禽完成了他们的处女航,第138电子战中队(VAQ-138)的“黄衫”完成了他们使用EA-6B“徘徊者”电子作战机的最后一次例行部署。第147“船蛸”战斗机中队完成了他们从F/A-18C“大黄蜂”到F/A-18E“超级大黄蜂”换装后的第一次部署。

CVW 9 flew more than 7250 sorties, consisting of approximately 12,747 flight hours with a sortie completion rate of 97 percent during deployment.
第9舰载机联队飞行过7250架次,飞行时间共计大约12747小时,出击成功率为97%。

While deployed, the squadrons of CVW 9 increased maritime security in the Western Pacific Ocean through their active presence and working with partner nations during exercises and port visits.
部署过程中,第9舰载机联队各中队通过其战场活动存在、与他国进行演习以及靠港访问巩固了西太平洋的安全形势。

For more news from USS John C. Stennis, visit www.navy.mil/local/cvn74/.
要了解更多有关约翰·C·斯坦尼斯号航母的新闻,请访问www.navy.mil/local/cvn74/。

 

如果你试着要下载Android的SDK,那么一定知道伟大的GFW已经墙了那个网站了。不过Google今天提供了一个LiveCD,趁还没被发现,赶紧下载吧。地址如下:

http://code.google.com/p/live-android/downloads/list

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